Most Dalit and Muslim prisoners in the country are languishing in up and tribal jails in Madhya Pradesh, common jails overcrowded, but women jails evacuated

Most Dalit and Muslim prisoners in the country are languishing in up and tribal jails in Madhya Pradesh, common jails overcrowded, but women jails evacuated

The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) has released a jail related report for the year 2019. According to this, there are about 4.72 lakh prisoners across the country. There are 4.53 lakh male and 19,81 female prisoners. 70 per cent are under trial, 30 per cent are guilty. Most of uttar Pradesh has one lakh prisoners. There are 44 thousand 603 prisoners in Madhya Pradesh and 39 thousand 814 in Bihar. In 2019, 18 lakh people were imprisoned, out of which 3 lakh people could still not get bail.

According to the report, the number of Dalit, Muslim and tribal prisoners is much higher than their proportion in the population. The 2011 census figures show that the scheduled caste (SC) population in the country is 16 per cent, while the NCRB data shows that 21.7 per cent of the convicts are languishing in Dalit jails.

If it comes to tribals, the guilty prisoners are 13.6% and 10.5% are under trial. Whereas, the total population is 8.6% in the country. 34.9% of obc convicts are imprisoned in jails, while their population is around 40%. Whereas, the figure of the rest of the other castes is 29.6%.

In the Muslim category, 16.6 per cent of the convicts are languishing in jails and 18.7 per cent are under trial. Whereas, the country has a population of 14.2 per cent. While talking about Hindus, about 74 per cent of the culprits are imprisoned in jails.

With the high number of Dalits, adivasis and Muslims in jails, we cannot say that crime is more in these communities, says Ritika Khera, associate professor, social activist and IIM Ahmedabad. Rather, it makes it known that in the country 0 "Rule of Law0 Is quite weak.


According to Reetika, the number in the under trial is also high because they do not have a lawyer or no money to get bail. Their poverty keeps them in jail. Whereas, the upper caste and the class people, even if found guilty, take bail easily. Recently, Vikas Dubey, who became an ncounter and jessica Lal's murderer, Manu Sharma, was also released.

She says that sometimes tribals and Muslims are also found to be in false cases. As in Chhattisgarh, Soni Saui was arrested and mistreat her in jail. There are many more such examples.

Most of the Dalit prisoners in the country are in up. Thereafter, they are languishing in jails in Madhya Pradesh and Punjab. Most of the tribal prisoners are in Madhya Pradesh and most of the Muslims are languishing in up jails.

Five years ago, that is, 2015, even at that time, the number of Dalit and tribal convicts was almost the same. In 2015, 21% of convicted Dalits, 13.7% convicted tribals and 15.8% of convicted Muslims were in jail. According to the report, the SC/ST is the first to do so. Under the St Act, 628 people are in jail across the country 2019. The highest 141 in up, 111 in Madhya Pradesh and 79 people in Bihar are in jail.

18.3 per cent of prisoners are in women's jails

There are a total of 19,81 women prisoners in the country, out of which only 18.3 per cent, i.e., 3,652 are imprisoned in women-made jails. While, 16 thousand 261 women are imprisoned in other jails in the country. The total number of women jails (women jails) in the country is 31. Rajasthan has the highest 7 women jails.


Between 2014 and 2019, the capacity of women-made prisons has increased by 34.6%, but the number of prisoners has increased by just 21.7%. In 2014, 62% of women were imprisoned in women-made prisons, while the figure declined to 56.1% in 2019.

Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh are the four states where the number of women prisoners in non-women jails is more than the capacity. But, even after 7 women's jails in Rajasthan, three part is vacant. The same is the case with Tamil Nadu (5 women's jails) and the rest of the States also.

Why women's prisons empty and overcrowding in common jails?

Now the question arises, why is the number of women in women's jails less? While non-women jails are overcrowded. In this regard, the founder of Tienka-Tienka, who served as a jail reformer on the increasing number of prisoners in overclymized and jails, says that there are no women jails in many states in the country. If the crime is registered there, the prisoners are kept the same, so the number in women's jails is low and more in common jails. Secondly, the number of women offenders in the country is increasing, but the pace of growth of women jails is slow. Not only that, there is shortage of women staff in those jails.

Vartika says that one of the biggest reasons is that in the country where the number of women jails should be higher, there is less. There are many jails which are far away, there is no connectivity. So, while making a jail, we need to keep in mind where it is, where the offences are more, where there is better connectivity. The number of prisoners in many women jails in the country is very low due to no jail at the right place.

Prisoners increased by 3.32 per cent in a year

Not only that, the overcrowding in jails has also increased, i.e., more prisoners than capacity have increased. In 2015, there were 114 prisoners at the living space of 100 people, while the figure in 2019 went up to 118. In Delhi, the figure is 175. If you talk of foreign prisoners, a total of 5000 608 foreign prisoners are in jail in India. There are 4,776 men and 832 women. Out of this, 2,171 are guilty and 2,979 are under trial while 40 are prisoners. The number of prisoners in the country has increased by 3.32 per cent as compared to 2018.

Vartika says that in our country, cases are not settled in time, the case of under trial is not resolved soon. There are many people whose offences should have been punishable by 2 months or 6 months, but their long time passes in jail. It is a matter of concern that there is no responsibility for it. At the same time, there are many people who are a spiritual offender, they repeatedly commit crimes and come to jail. This also increases the number of prisoners.

Most prisoners escaped from Gujarat jails

A total of 468 prisoners escaped from jails across the country in 2019, out of which 329 were absconding from judicial custody and 139 police custody. Out of these, 231 were arrested again. Most of the 175 prisoners escaped from Gujarat. However, not a single prisoner has escaped from 11 states and union territories including Sikkim, Meghalaya, Goa and Jammu and Kashmi

A total of 1 thousand 775 prisoners have died in jail in 2019. Out of these, 1,544 natural, 165 unnatural and 66 died. According to the report, 1,466 prisoners were sick, 78 prisoners were also killed due to high age. The worst case in unnatural death is suside. In 2019, 116 prisoners have been well-informed. In Uttar Pradesh, most of the prisoners have died.

Vartika Nanda says that this is a social and legal issue which is not being taken care of collectively. Since the jail has been built, such incidents have been taking place, in a way, it has become part of the nature of prisons, which is not correct. The jail wants those who come here to survive, but how they are alive are not taken care of. There are many people who did not commit a crime or their trial should have been done quickly, but they have to undergo a long time in jail. They also come into depression and take such steps. Therefore, it is imperative that the prison reforms are worked out, facilities should be provided, libraries should be provided.

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